© 2010 PhysOrg.com OLED Displays on Flexible Metallic Substrates Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (PhysOrg.com) — Flexible and translucent organic displays have been developed by TDK for use in “bendable” mobile phones and other gadgets, and the bendable display is expected to go into mass production by the end of 2011. Citation: Flexible and transparent OLEDs from TDK (w/ Video) (2010, October 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-10-flexible-transparent-oleds-tdk-video.html The displays, developed by TDK, use organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology, which means very low power use because they are self illuminating. Having no back light enables the displays to be ultra thin (at 0.3 mm), but TDK’s flexible display is also super light because it is manufactured using a film substrate rather than metal or glass.The resolution of the flexible screen is currently 256 x 64, and it can be up to 10 cm tall and installed on curved surfaces of less than 25 mm radius. Being flexible would make the display more resistant to cracks or breakages. Image credit: Tech on. The translucent display is 320 x 240 resolution, 50 percent translucent, and up to 10 cm tall. The display uses one-way light emission, meaning the user of the device is able to see the text or images displayed, but people on the other side cannot because the light output is set to the direction of the text, although they can see through the display. The translucent display uses a glass substrate, but a film transparent display is planned for 2012.Several other companies have previously demonstrated flexible screens, such as Sony, but TDK’s flexible display is expected to be in mass production by the end of next year, making it the first to actually reach market. The translucent screen is already being mass produced.The OLEDs were unveiled at the Cutting-Edge IT & Electronics Comprehensive Exhibition (CEATEC) 2010 in Tokyo, Japan yesterday.
© 2011 PhysOrg.com Image credit: Tech-On Sony calls the lenticular sheet the VGP-FL3D15A glasses-free 3-D panel. The 3mm-thick device can be attached to the front side of the notebook’s LCD panel. This no-glasses 3-D sheet from Sony is supported by face-tracking technology, so that the viewer can get an optimized 3-D image with pixels shifted around behind the lens. The Vaio viewing process with this sheet will use face detection to track the position of the viewer’s head via built-in web camera; images will be adjusted for clarity to make sure the viewer gets and maintains the 3-D experience.The Vaio S series will debut in Europe next month and the price is expected to be about $1,000. The price of the sheet accessory is said to be $183.The 3-D option via lenticular sheet is just one of several 3-D products that Sony announced. The Sony Vaio L Series all-in-one 3-D touchscreen multimedia PC, the 3-D-capable Sony SMP-N200 Network Media Player, and the Sony VPL-VW95ES 3-D projector were part of the company’s showcase.As a number of correspondents covering the show are saying, 3-D bells and whistles on viewer devices, on projectors, on televisions, and on computers, are all being promoted by consumer electronics kingpins as the way to get to consumers’ hearts in the hope that enhanced viewing experiences will help products move.Meanwhile, the news portal Tech-On! points out that a lenticular-system sheet to make visuals appear in 3-D made a June debut, with the announcement by Global Wave of its lenticular system sheet called Pic3D. This product from Global Wave is a lenticular lens film that one can add to a smartphone, tablet or laptop screen to turn it into a glasses-free 3-D display. Global Wave says that the product was announced last year but is now improved. Sony makes eco-friendly mini laptop Citation: Sony presents optional 3-D sheet as new laptop accessory (2011, September 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-09-sony-optional-d-sheet-laptop.html Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (PhysOrg.com) — Sony has come out with a sheet for a notebook PC where the viewer can see 3-D images without having to wear special glasses. Sony displayed the sheet at IFA 2011 in Berlin, Europe’s showcase of consumer electronics, which runs from September 2 to September 7. The sheet is targeted for Sony’s Vaio S series, as an optional accessory for models that are equipped with a Blu-Ray drive. The screen attaches to the computer’s LCD screen.
via Guardian Up till now, most in the field have agreed that the most recent evidence of early man hunting animals for meat to eat was at a site in Germany that showed horses being brought down with long spears, likely thrown from trees, approximately 400,000 years ago. They’ve also agreed that early man was almost certainly eating meat before this time, but only from carcasses left over from other hunters such as lions.In this new study, Bunn said that in comparing the types of animals and their ages eaten by lions and other carnivores today with the types of meat that were being eaten by early man, it’s clear that our descendants were not eating leftovers, but were instead going out and getting their own meat.When leopards and lions hunt down and eat the larger species of antelope, for example, they tend to go for the young or old, as they are generally easier to bring down. Evidence at the Tanzania site however shows that early humans were eating such animals that were in their prime. On the other hand, when the big cats go after the smaller species of antelope, they tend to capture those in their prime, while early man seemed to prefer the young and the old. These findings, Bunn said, show very clearly that the animals that early man was eating were not brought down by other animals but were killed by hunting them themselves.The evidence brought forth by Bunn could mean the rewriting of some human evolution theories regarding how it was humans developed such complex brains, and why. Some have suggested it came about as a result of the evolution of social communities and the challenges it created, with early man eating a lot of vegetative material and the odd bit of meat that could be scavenged. If early man was hunting though, that would mean he was using his brain to development new ways to do it more efficiently, particularly if it was done in groups, which would seem the most likely scenario as it generally results in the most success. Citation: Anthropologist pushes back date of first humans hunting for meat to two million years ago (2012, September 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-09-anthropologist-date-humans-meat-million.html © 2012 Phys.org New book further supports controversial theory of ‘Man the Hunted’ Explore further (Phys.org)—Henry Bunn, anthropologist from Wisconsin University, speaking at the annual European Society for the study of Human Evolution meeting in Bordeaux this year, has suggested that the date that humans began hunting down large prey for food needs to be pushed back over a million and a half years after studying evidence of carcasses of antelopes, gazelles and wildebeest left behind by Homo habilis at a site in Tanzania. He said evidence there indicates that early man was hunting in an organized fashion some two million years ago. More information: This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
(Phys.org)—Toshiba has announced a low-power embedded SRAM memory chip which may make future mobile devices last longer. Presenting its SRAM developments at the International Solid-State Circuit Conference in San Francisco in February, Toshiba said that its low-power design technique could help cut active and standby power consumption by 27 percent and 85 percent, respectively. Toshiba accomplished this by using a bit-line power calculator, or BLPC, to predict the power consumption of the bit lines and to monitor consumption of SRAM rest circuits, and a digitally-controllable retention circuit, or DCRC. © 2013 Phys.org Explore further New STT-MRAM memory element cuts power consumption of mobile processor by two-thirds More information: www.semicon.toshiba.co.jp/eng/ … pics_130222_e_1.html The DCRC is used to decrease standby power by updating the size of the buffer in the retention driver.Toshiba noted its technology advancement is suited for smartphones and other mobile products. The technology reduces active and standby power in temperatures ranging from room temperature to high temperature through use of this BLPC and DCRC. Tokyo-based Toshiba further noted that “longer battery life requires lower power consumption in both high performance and low performance modes (MP3 decoding, background processing, etc.). As low performance applications require only tens of MHz operation, SRAM temperature remains around RT, where active and leakage power consumptions are comparable. Given this, the key issue is to reduce active and standby power from HT to RT.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Toshiba’s low-power SRAM chip aims to cut device drain (2013, February 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-02-toshiba-low-power-sram-chip-aims.html
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org)—Like Einstein, the philosopher Karl Popper was a realist who was deeply bothered by some of the odd implications of quantum mechanics. Both Popper and Einstein disliked the idea in Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, for instance, that precisely measuring one property of a particle means that the particle’s conjugate property is completely undetermined. This idea undermines the basic principle of common-sense realism: that every particle’s properties must have precise pre-existing values, which do not depend on being measured. Both Popper and Einstein proposed thought experiments critiquing the uncertainty principle. But while Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen’s EPR experiment is quite famous, Popper’s experiment is not as widely known.Popper first published his proposed experiment in 1934, and in 1999, physicists Yoon-Ho Kim and Yanhua Shih realized Popper’s experiment for the first time. In what came as a surprise to many, their results agreed with Popper’s predictions, yet are not generally considered to be a true violation of the uncertainty principle, as Popper believed. The findings ignited a great deal of critique, both of Popper’s original ideas and how they might be realized and interpreted.Now in a new study published in EPL, Shih and coauthors at the University of Maryland in Baltimore and Oakland Community College in Waterford, Michigan, have again realized Popper’s experiment using a different approach. Once again, their results agree with Popper’s predictions, yet still do not violate the uncertainty principle. However, the researchers explain that the results do reveal a concern about nonlocal interference, as the observations suggest that a pair of particles is instantaneously interfering with itself, even across large distances. Tale of two particlesThe uncertainty principle places a fundamental limit on the precision with which conjugate pairs of physical properties of a particle, such as position and momentum, can be determined simultaneously. Mathematically, this means ΔpyΔy ≥ h, where p and y are the momentum and position of a particle, and h (Planck’s constant) is the minimum amount of uncertainty required. In his thought experiment, Popper considered what the uncertainty principle might mean for a pair of particles that are entangled, meaning the particles have both position-position correlation and momentum-momentum correlation with one another. The EPR thought experiment, published in 1935, similarly considered the case of an entangled pair of particles.Theoretically, if the position or momentum of one entangled particle is measured, then this knowledge can be used to instantly determine the position or momentum of the second particle—and with exact certainty, since the particles’ properties are inherently correlated. Citation: Popper’s experiment realized again—but what does it mean? (2015, January 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-01-popper-againbut.html “Perhaps, deep in his mind, Popper could never accept the idea that the measurement of the position of particle one can simultaneously affect the position of particle two,” Shih told Phys.org. Ghost imaging experimentsPopper’s experiment can be realized in a couple different ways. Kim and Shih’s 1999 experiment was performed using entangled photon pairs generated by a spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) source, which is commonly used to generate entangled particles.In that experiment, Kim and Shih first confirmed that the entangled photon pair can achieve a position-position correlation by means of a technique called ghost imaging. In ghost imaging, the two entangled particles can “image” a real slit from the path of photon one onto the path of photon two at a distance, creating a so-called “ghost slit” for photon two. While photon one is restricted within the real slit, photon two must also be instantly restricted within the ghost slit. Kim and Shih then compared their measured diffraction pattern from the ghost slit with the diffraction pattern of a real slit in place of the ghost slit. It was a surprise to everyone, including Kim and Shih, that their experiment agreed with Popper’s prediction: the diffraction pattern from the ghost slit was much narrower than that of the real slit. Just as Popper had predicted, particle two was not affected by a measurement made on particle one.In the new paper, Shih and his coauthors observed the same results, but instead of using entangled photon pairs, they used randomly paired photons in a thermal state. Using similar ghost imaging technology, the physicists confirmed that the randomly paired photons in the thermal state are able to produce a ghost slit at a distance. They then compared their measured diffraction pattern from the ghost slit with the diffraction pattern from a real slit in place of the ghost slit. It was a surprise again to find that the new experimental results agree with Popper’s prediction. The important difference with the second experiment is that the randomly paired photons do not have any pre-prepared entanglement, which means they are considered to be a classical system. This raises the question, how could a classical system produce the same result as a quantum system? Shih is confident that they will soon find an answer. Uncertainty preserved, nonlocality in questionAlthough it may seem like the above two experiments violate the uncertainty principle because the results show a smaller-than-required degree of uncertainty, Shih and his coauthors explain that no violation has occurred due to the fact that the experiments involve photon pairs rather than individual photons. The scientists argue that Popper’s original thought experiment was based on a misunderstanding of the proper context of the uncertainty principle: it governs the behavior of single particles only, not the “correlation” of two particles. In a sense, the entire thought experiment is flawed, at least in terms of what it means for the uncertainty principle. However, the researchers think that Popper’s (and EPR’s) concern about the nonlocal correlation of distant particles is still reasonable and fundamentally sound. As the researchers explain, the results of Popper’s experiment still reveal some important insight because the observations suggest that the photon pair is interfering with itself instantaneously in a phenomenon called nonlocal interference. In the new experiment, the randomly paired photons have two different yet indistinguishable probabilities to be simultaneously annihilated at two distant photodetectors. The observations are the result of the superposition of these two probability amplitudes. In this sense, the physicists explain that the same question that faced Popper and Einstein is still facing physicists today, which is, how long does it take for nonlocal interference to occur?”Assuming the two random photons are separated by one light-year, how long does it take to force particle two to appear at a certain position after observing the first particle?” Shih said. “In the view of quantum mechanics—specifically, the theory of two-photon interference—a precise measurement of the position of a particle would instantly determine the position of its entangled twin at a distance. As a believer of realism and relativity, Popper had to ask these questions, similar to Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen.”In addition to the analysis in this latest paper, there have been a wide variety of other criticisms of Popper’s experiment over the past few decades. Although Popper’s experiment may not have been the perfect way to test the uncertainty principle, it has nevertheless succeeded in opening new perspectives on a model of the world that may never be completely understood. More information: Tao Peng, et al. “Popper’s experiment with randomly paired photons in thermal state.” EPL. DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/109/14003Yoon-Ho Kim and Yanhua Shih. “Experimental Realization of Popper’s Experiment: Violation of the Uncertainty Principle?” Found. Phys., 29 (1999) 1849 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1018890316979 Illustration of the new experimental set-up used to realize Popper’s experiment. One entangled photon travels through slit A, while the other travels a different path through slit B, which can be adjusted to be the same width as slit A or wide open. Credit: Tao Peng, et al. ©2015 EPLA Popper wondered what would happen if the position of one of the entangled particles were restricted within a narrow slit, Δy. Even if no slit were placed in the way of the second particle, the position of the second particle would also be restricted within the narrow range of Δy, due to the position-position correlation between the two particles. In this case, would the second particle be “diffracted” by a nonexistent “slit” in order to preserve ΔpyΔy ≥ h? Popper believed no, that the diffraction of the second particle would happen only in the case of a real slit, and not by a nonexistent “slit.” He predicted that, without the use of a real slit, the second particle should not be diffracted at all. However, this prediction means that the second particle’s position has a precise value, so that ΔpyΔy < h. Popper considered this result a violation of the uncertainty principle, as it seems to show that the uncertainty is less than the minimum requirement. Duality principle is 'safe and sound': Researchers clear up apparent violation of wave-particle duality © 2015 Phys.org Illustration of Popper’s experiment realized with randomly paired photons in a thermal state. In the second set-up, there is no “slit B” for the photon on the right. The new results show that this photon is not affected by a measurement on the left photon (which does travel through a slit), in agreement with Popper’s prediction. Credit: Tao Peng, et al. ©2015 EPLA Journal information: Europhysics Letters (EPL) Explore further
Cranial modification is the process of altering the physical characteristics of the skull—throughout history, it has been done by binding the heads of babies when their skulls are still soft. In most instances, the goal was to elongate the skull—it is actually still practiced today in some parts of the world. Bindings have typically been in the form of cloth or wood boards. It is not known why many early cultures engaged in the practice, but some in the field have suggested it is likely a way to mark someone as belonging to an elite or special part of society. In this new effort, the researchers were studying skeletal remains removed from a site called Houtaomuga. The site is believed to have been an ancient Chinese tomb—archaeologists worked at the site from 2011 to 2015. The skeletons were all in a vertically shaped tomb, and there were no obvious gender biases for cranial modification. Twenty-five skeletons were found in all, 11 of which had evidence of intentional cranial modification. Four of the skulls were from adult males, one was from an adult female, and the rest were from children. The bones were not placed in the tomb at the same time, however, they were interred over the course of 7,000 years, from 12,000 to 5,000 years ago.The researchers report that there was very little evidence that might provide an explanation for the binding of babies’ heads, but suggest it likely was an indicator of wealth or high status. Some of the skeletons were buried with artifacts that suggested as much, such as pottery. They report also that they plan to continue digging in the general vicinity of Houtaomuga to find out if there are other tombs in the area, and if so, whether they have more examples of ancient cranial modification. Infant skull binding shaped identity, inequality in ancient Andes This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. A team with members from China, Singapore and the U.S. has found some of the oldest examples of cranial modification in a northeastern part of China. In their paper published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology, the group describes the skeletons they studied and what they found. “Postcoronal depression” displayed by M45. A depression locates slightly posterior to the coronal suture on both parietal bones. The increase of the thickness of the diploë in the frontal and parietal bone is visible. Credit: American Journal of Physical Anthropology (2019). DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23888 More information: Qun Zhang et al. Intentional cranial modification from the Houtaomuga Site in Jilin, China: Earliest evidence and longest in situ practice during the Neolithic Age, American Journal of Physical Anthropology (2019). DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.23888 © 2019 Science X Network Explore further Citation: Researchers in China find some of the oldest examples of cranial modification (2019, July 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-07-china-oldest-examples-cranial-modification.html Journal information: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
A girl in class 10 writes ‘it feels really sad to know you all feel that women are inferior and not capable of doing anything’. Another girl writes ‘… but this world seems to suppress girls and dominate us, which is stupid’. Letters like these are part of an exhibition that aims to introduce visitors to what concerns these young girls.The title of the exhibition comes from American author and poet Maya Angelou’s collection of poems And Still I Rise as it goes with its central theme: raising awareness of gender discrimination and its impact on limiting opportunities for women worldwide. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’What makes the exhibition different is that it also features artworks inspired by the writings of girls aged 14-18 from countries like India, China, Britain and Mexico in which they openly address the many fears, insecurities and stereotypes that societies around the world are building.The letters grew out of a workshop conducted by a Delhi-based charity, Creative Services Support Group (CSSG), which invited around 200 schoolgirls in the city to pen down their thoughts on how girls are perceived in society and their role in it. The replies opened a pandora box of issues confronting these young girls and provided a gateway to their minds. The exhibition is on till April 12 at Instituto Cervantes de Nueva, Hanuman Road.
Kolkata: West Bengal would shortly issue a notification to regulate the companies involved in direct selling of products in the state, as directed by the Central government, state Consumer Affairs minister Sadhan Pande said on Tuesday. The minister said the department would add certain clauses to the organisations involved in direct selling after thoroughly studying their product base and the line of business.”The Federation of Direct Selling Association (FDSA) had given a requisition to the government of India. The Centre has asked the state governments to accept this by adding certain clauses that suit their economic policies,” Pande said on the sidelines of a conference organised by FICCI CASCADE (Committee Against Smuggling and Counterfeiting Activities Destroying the Economy) here. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flights”There are several companies who are interested in direct selling their products without spending on advertisements and publicity which would enable them to sell the product to the masses at an affordable cost. We have thoroughly studied the list of products provided by the companies and would issue a notification shortly,” he said. The minister announced that certain definitive clauses would be added so that the consumers do not face any difficulty in buying these products. “Earlier, direct selling was there but we did not have any regulations for the companies involved. Now that issue would be taken care of,” he added.
Kolkata: A college student was arrested on Thursday on charges of demanding money from another who sought admission to Haripal Vivekananda Mahavidyalaya in Hooghly. The accused, a resident of Ghanashyampur in Singur, had demanded Rs 10,000 from a girl assuring her of admission at the institution. The complainant is a resident of Dewanbari village in Singur.The student, Apurba Das, has been arrested and it is learnt that he had visited the student’s residence on more than one occasion with a demand for money. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedAfter the complaint was lodged, the police set up a trap and told the girl to call up Das at her residence. Following their instructions, she asked him to come to her house and when he reached there on Thursday morning, he was caught red-handed. A few days back, the cops had arrested two students of Peary Mohan College in Uttarpara on similar charges. Recently, amid allegations of extortion of money from students in the name of admissions in colleges, Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee paid a surprise visit to Asutosh College and warned of “strong action” against anyone indulging in irregularities during the admission process. The Student Federation of India (SFI) and the student wing of the BJP took out separate rallies in the city to protest against alleged extortion in colleges.
If you get cravings for chips, sweets and fast-food whenever you are bored, do not blame the situation alone. According to British researchers, people eat more to boost low levels of brain chemical dopamine as they cannot alleviate the boredom in any other way.The results showed that people were more likely to express a preference for unhealthy foods like crisps, sweets and fast food after completing the boring task.“This strengthens the theory that boredom is related to low levels of the stimulating brain chemical dopamine and people try to boost this by eating fat and sugar if they cannot alleviate their boredom in some other way,” said Dr Sandi Mann from the University of Central Lancashire (UCLan). Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Mann and colleagues Faye Ibbitson and Ben Edwards conducted two studies of boredom and food choices.In the first study, the team asked 52 participants to complete a questionnaire on their food preferences before and after completing the boredom-inducing task of repeatedly copying the same group of letters.In the second study, they asked 45 participants to watch either a boring or a funny video, during which a range of healthy and unhealthy snacks were available.They found that the participants, who had watched the boring video, ate significantly more unhealthy food.“Health education campaigns can encourage us to make healthier food choices need to take boredom, including boredom in the workplace, into account. Bored people do not eat nuts,” Mann stated.The study was scheduled to be presented at the annual conference of the British Psychological Society this week.